Konstantin Chaykin, Russian inventor and watchmaker, presents his new project, the Mars Conqueror wristwatch.
Presently several research programs are under progress across the world for sending manned space expeditions to Mars. Explorations of the Red planet are included in the prospective space programs of Roskosmos, NASA, ESA, space agencies from other countries and companies like SpaceX and Boeing Corporation.
Nobody knows which of the space corporations will be the first to succeed in conquering Mars, but it is absolutely certainly Konstantin Chaykin is the first watchmaker who invented and produced a specialized 100% mechanical wristwatch suitable for the future conquerors of Mars.
The concept of the new Mars Conqueror watch was appeared almost instantly: it should be a watch that shows the local Martian time, but constantly linked to the Earth time. Obviously, it is too early to speak about development of independent human settlements on Mars. The watch should be equipped as well with an indicator of the space arrangement of the two planets realized in an intuitive way. The development of highly complicated mechanical module with three dials of Martian time, Earth time and planetary indicator took about eight months.
This is remarkably short schedule for watch of high level of complexity (in terms of the number of functional parts the Mars Conqueror watch is comparable to the minute repeater). Definitely that was possible because of Konstantin Chaykin’s great experience of astronomical watches and clocks development – starting with his Lunokhod, Decalogue wristwatches and to his numerous super complicated Computus Clocks.
The Mars Conqueror watch features a unique combination of astronomical and space traveler’s functions that did not exist before. The astronomical clocks were appeared at the dawn of the mechanical watchmaking with the aim to reproduce mechanically the motion of heavenly bodies – as we see them from the Earth. Specialized space traveler’s functions are still at the early development stage in watchmaking. This is due to the fact that manned expeditions are conducted in Earth’s low orbits (with the exception of several lunar missions of the 1960s and 1970s), so cosmonauts and astronauts didn’t need any special “space” time measuring. Their life and missions during orbital flights are based on Earth’s time.
Nevertheless, long before the Martian expedition could seem a reality, in 1954 American astronomer I. M. Levitt designed the Space Clock Mars, which might be used further by the conquerors of Mars. There was the first time in the history of the watchmaking when real space traveler’s function was implemented – as an electromechanical clock indicating Martian time and date, supplemented by an indication of Earth time and date. Two copies of Space Clock Mars were produced by the American watch company Hamilton according to Levitt’s design.
Levitt’s stationary clock had electromechanical movement, that means the state of the art for the middle of the 20th century, but the movement was far from to be compact enough to be used in wristwatches. The production of the first wristwatches, both mechanical and quartz, with the indication of Martian time was started by the Californian watchmaker Garo Anserlian in 2004. Anserlian’s wristwatches were used by the NASA engineer’s team controlling Martian rovers Spirit and Opportunity.
Konstantin Chaykin made a significant step forward, combining for the first time in the history of watchmaking the space traveler’s functions of local, i.e. Martian and Earth’s time and date indications (Martian and Earth’s dates in Mars Conqueror watch are indicated approximately) with the astronomical function of the indication of Mars and Earth positions. The latter is produced as a planetarium. The astronomical indication has also a very important space traveler’s function, intended for future Mars conquerors: it shows the positions of Earth and Mars in their orbits, allowing to estimate the distance between the planets, it has as well an indication of the moments of oppositions and perihelic oppositions, where a distance is minimal.
Mars Conqueror is hundred percent mechanical watch that guarantees their good operation both during the future space flight, and on the surface of Mars, where, as known, the watch will not be protected from the radiation due to the weakness of the planet’s magnetic field, and because of the tenuous Martian atmosphere. Specially for the Mars Conqueror watch Konstantin Chaykin has developed a module with unique astronomical and space traveler’s indications arranged in three dials.
The first dial contains the Earth time with a central second hand as indication that watch wasn’t stop and in working order. On the second dial we have local Martian time and on the third dial there is a planetary indicator of the relative positions of two planets and their oppositions. The indications of the average solar time on Earth and on Mars are synchronized, the movement uses only one balance assembly. This is the guarantee that Mars Conqueror watch will not accumulate deviations in the indication of Earth and Mars time, which could occur in a movement with two balances.
Mars Conqueror’s complicated module of astronomical and space traveler’s indications is completely made, assembled and adjusted by the Konstantin Chaykin Manufactory in Moscow. The module consists of 159 parts, including 30 wheels, 6 pinions and 6 jewels for reduction of friction and wear. The module is installed on a reliable, tried and tested automatic Caliber ETA 2836-2. The watch is equipped with three correctors for indicators adjustments, placed in the caseback.
Final design of the Mars Conqueror watch is still in development; Konstantin Chaykin meticulously analyzes and enhances his first Martian project for the smallest details. The final version of Mars Conqueror watch is planned to be officially presented on Basel World 2019 watch exhibition.
Complication module entirely conceived, developed, produced and adjusted by Konstantin Chaykin manufacture
Base movement Swiss made Eta 2836-2, automatic winding
Escapement lever escapement
Balance frequency 28,800 semi-oscillations per hour
Power reserve 38 hours when fully wound
Rotor of automatic winding mechanism annular; styled as docking system of space ship; adorned by engraved logo of Konstantin Chaykin manufacture
Movement dimensions 32.63 х 51.2 mm; height 7.95 mm (incl. module)
Module height 5.6 mm
Jewels 31 (25 jewels for base movement, 6 jewels for module)
Module parts 159 (without hands and dial)
Module number if wheels 30
Module number if pinions 6
Case parts 68 (without strap and clasp)
Earth time (mean solar time): central hands for hours, minutes, seconds and 24-hour hand for second time zone (GMT)
Mars time (mean solar time): central hands for hours and minutes
Multifunctional planetary indication of Mars and Earth orbital positions: Martian date or mission date in sols, terrestrial date with months indexes, relative positions of Mars and Earth with indication of oppositions and perihelic oppositions.
Mission start: adjustment of Martian year beginning or mission start by turning of Martian date scale graduated in sols
Fast correction: synchronous adjustment of Mars and Earth date hands
Mars correction: separate adjustment of Mars date hand (adjustment of Mars orbital position)
Winding crown functions
Watch winding by turning the winding crown clockwise in its normal position
The first pulled position: adjustment of second time zone (GMT) hand by turning the winding crown clockwise and adjustment of Mars time hands hand by turning the winding crown anticlockwise
The second pulled position: synchronous adjustment of Mars and Earth time hands